Emotional Intelligence via Wearables: A Method for Detecting Frustration

Nectarios Costadopoulos


The research discussed in this paper is part of a pilot study in the use of wearable devices incorporating electroencephalogram (EEG) and heartrate sensors to sense for the emotional responses closely correlated to frustration when performing certain tasks. For this study the methodology used a combination of puzzle, arcade style game and a meditation apps to emulate a task based environment and detect frustration and satisfaction emotions. Preliminary results indicate that degree of task completion has an effect on emotions and can be detected by EEG and heartrate changes.


Emotional Intelligence; Wearable Devices; EEG; ECG; EQ; Heart Rate; Electroencephalogram


J. D. Mayer and P. Salovey, "The intelligence of emotional intelligence," Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 433–442, 1993.

T. Bradberry. (2014, 9/01/2014) Emotional Intelligence. Forbes. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/travisbradberry/2014/01/09/emotional-intelligence/

N. Libbrecht, F. Lievens, and E. Schollaert, "Measurement equivalence of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale across self and other ratings," Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 1007–1020, 2010.

R. Plutchik, "Theories of Emotion," in Emotions in the Practice of Psychotherapy, ed, 2000, pp. 39–58.

R. Adolphs, "Neural systems for recognizing emotion," Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 2002.

H. D. Critchley, P. Rotshtein, Y. Nagai, J. O'Doherty, C. J. Mathias, and R. J. Dolan, "Activity in the human brain predicting differential heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions," NeuroImage, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 751–762, 2005.

B. J. Rhodes, N. Minar, and J. Weaver, "Wearable computing meets ubiquitous computing reaping the best of both worlds," in the Third International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC '99), IEEE, San Francisco, CA, 1999, pp. 141–149.

Futuretech. (2014, 3 July). The era of wearable electronics. Available: http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA366836908&v=2.1&u=csu_au&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w&asid=bb4ae65ca41a66da6091ca94f49f82e6

"Apple watch set to drive wearables into the mainstream?," Biometric Technology Today, vol. 2014, issue 9, p. 1, Sept 2014.

Gartner, "Gartner says worldwide wearable devices sales to grow 18.4% in 2016," ed. Gurgaon, 2016. Available: http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3198018

R. W. Picard, "Affective Computing," presented at the M.I.T Media Laboratory Perceptual Computing Section Technical Report, 1995.

Emotiv. (2014). Emotiv EPOC / EPOC+. Available: http://www.emotiv.com/epoc.php

NeuroSky. (2015). MindWave Mobile: MyndPlay Bundle. Available: http://store.neurosky.com/products/mindwave-mobile

"NeuroSky Mindwave Mobile Review," in Neurogadget, 2012. Available: http://neurogadget.net/2012/12/20/neurosky-mindwave-mobile-review/6611

"Quasar Tech," in Wearable Sensing, ed, 2015.

R. Metz. (2014, 1/8/14) Using Your Ear to Track Your Heart. MIT Technology Review. Available: http://www.technologyreview.com/news/529571/using-your-ear-to-track-your-heart/

E. A. Emad. (2014). Epilepsy Awareness Program - EEG Resources Available: http://www.biomedresearches.com/root/pages/researches/epilepsy/eeg_resources.html

B. J. Fisch, "Fisch and Spehimann’s EEG primer basic principles of analog and digital EEG," 3rd rev. ed, 1999.

Emotiv. (2014). Brain computer interface & scientific contextual EEG Manual. Available: http://www.emotiv.com/product-specs/Emotiv%20EPOC%20Specifications%202014.pdf

(2015, 30 May). Qualitative Research: Case Study Guidelines. Available: http://www.tesol.org/read-and-publish/journals/tesol-quarterly/tesol-quarterly-research-guidelines/qualitative-research-case-study-guidelines

BigDuckGames, "Flow Free," ed. ITunes: Apple, 2015.

Meditation can transform your life. Available: http://www.labyrinthonline.com/index.html

A. Sekiguchi, M. Sugiura, S. Yokoyama, Y. Sassa, K. Horie, S. Sato, et al., "Neural correlates of adaptive social responses to real-life frustrating situations: a functional MRI study," BMC neuroscience, vol. 14:29, 2013.

N. O. C. Eoin Halpin, Neil Larkin, "Fluctuations in frustration levels of gamers versus non-gamers," in Proceedings of the 8th Irish Human Computer Interaction Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 1–2 Sep 2014, pp. 8–13.

C. M. A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts, L. A. A. Kollee, J. C. W. Hopman, G. B. A. Stoelinga, and H. P. van Geijn, "Heart rate variability," Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 436–447, 1993.

C.-M. Chen and H.-P. Wang, "Using emotion recognition technology to assess the effects of different multimedia materials on learning emotion and performance," Library and Information Science Research, vol. 33, no.3, pp. 244–255, 2011.

A. Judith and S. Merlin Teodosia, "Recognizing student emotions using brainwaves and mouse behavior data," International Journal of Distance Education Technologies (IJDET), vol. 11, pp. 1–15, 2013.

(2010, 1 June). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Available: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=11#802

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

IT in Innovation IT in Business IT in Engineering IT in Health IT in Science IT in Design IT in Fashion

IT in Industry © (2012 - ) · http://www.it-in-industry.org · ISSN (Online): 2203-1731; ISSN (Print): 2204-0595